Saddam Hussein's cousin "Chemical Ali" has been hanged for a poison gas attack on Kurds which left 5,000 people dead.
Ali Hassan al-Majid was executed a week after he received his fourth death sentence, the final one for the 1988 gas attack.
He bore a striking resemblance to Saddam and was one of the most brutal members of the dictator's inner circle.
The general led sweeping military campaigns in the 1980s and 1990s that claimed tens of thousands of lives - wiping out entire villages in attacks against rebellious Kurds and cracking down on Shia in southern Iraq.
Al-Majid was one of the last high-profile members of the former Sunni-led regime still on trial in Iraq.
Al-Majid was a warrant officer and motorcycle messenger in the army before Saddam's Baath party led a coup in 1968. He was promoted to general and served as defence minister from 1991-95, as well as a regional party leader.
In 1988, as the eight-year Iran-Iraq war was winding down, he commanded a scorched-earth campaign known as Anfal to wipe out a Kurdish rebellion in northern Iraq.
An estimated 100,000 people - most of them civilians - were killed over less than a year. Later, al-Majid boasted about the attacks, as well as the separate March 16, 1988, gas attack on Halabja, which gave him his nickname.
He was also linked to crackdowns on Shia in southern Iraq, including the bloody suppression of their 1991 uprising. In a previous trial, he was sentenced to death for that crackdown.
The previous sentences were not carried out in part because Halabja survivors wanted to have their case against him heard.